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  • Writer's pictureSerena Booy

THE FOUR PRIMARY CAUSES OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Updated: Sep 6, 2021


The burden of death and disability is higher amongst people in developing countries.


Higher rates of obesity and diabetes are now more prevalent throughout the Pacific Countries


96.5% of low birth-weight infants are born in low-income countries


Nearly half of all deaths in children <5 years old, living in developing countries result from under-nutrition



The Four Primary Causes of Morbidity and Mortality are:

1. Poverty

2. Powerlessness

3. Lack of Education

4. Lack of Access



POVERTY

Defining poverty? How does one define poverty?

Is it:

Hunger?

Lack of shelter?

Being sick and not being able to get help?

Not being able to go to school?

Not being able to read?

Not having a job?

Uncertain about the future?

Having no one to turn to?

Unable to represent yourself?

Seeing a loved one die without any help?


Poverty is not just defined by a lack of financial resources, poverty is also an inadequate access to employment, health services, housing and education. Poverty is a condition that restricts and prohibits people from accessing resources such as dental and health care, access to adequate housing, electricity, food and safe drinking water. Poverty forces people to live in often overcrowded conditions, conditions that promote disease and exasperate the spread of infectious diseases. Poverty also lead to limited food choices and poor health outcomes, often impacting on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. Poor financial resources may result from a lack of employment opportunities or a person’s inability to work due to isolation, disability or illness.


Populations living in less developed countries are often denied access to health care due to lack of finances. Food security is an essential element in maintaining the health of any population. In low-income countries, food can be sourced by several avenues:

self-sufficiency, having your own garden and growing your food, using home grown produce such as bananas to trade for other foods such as kumu,

selling home grown produce at the markets in exchange for money to buy other stables such as rice or medicines or

buying fruits and vegetables from the market place or local stores.

Wontok system of family members looking after each other


Negative outcomes are always present when individuals and families are unable to access good food. Poor food security impacts on

the health of pregnant women,

the health of new born babies, resulting in low birthweight,

inadequate milk supply for mother and child,

malnourished and under-nourished infants,

poor childhood development,

stunting,

poor resilience to infectious and insect-borne diseases


POWERLESSNESS

Poverty and powerlessness often go hand in hand as both a cause and effect. People living in poverty have no power and are often subject to exploitation. ‘When a woman is poor, she has no say in public, she feels inferior. She has no food, so there is famine in her house; no clothing, and no progress in her family.’ (Source: World Bank, 2006b)


LACK OF EDUCATION

In developing countries, girls in large families are less likely to begin school and more likely to drop out early. A woman’s understanding of anatomy and her level of health literacy are essential factor in a woman’s likelihood to access health services for herself or her children when needed.


ACCESS TO RESOURCES

Populations living in remote areas have

limited access to economic opportunities as those living in more urban areas,

poorer access to services such as dentist, doctors, pharmacies, supermarkets and marketplaces

often poor and deteriorating transport infrastructures

costly and often prohibiting transport costs

geographical limitations such as oceans to cross

law and order problems

poor government infrastructure


Conclusion


High mortality rates in under 5 year, escalating rates of gynaecological cancers in women living in developing countries, HIV/AIDS, malaria and malnutrition, under-nutrition and over-nutrition are some of the areas of high morbidity and high mortality rates in developing countries. Communicable, non-communicable and tropical diseases cannot be effectively reduced without addressing the four primary causes of sickness and death in developing countries: poverty, powerlessness, lack of education and inadequate access to services

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